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Hierarchy of Evidence

  • Category I:  Evidence from at least one properly randomized controlled trial.
  • Category II-1: Evidence from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.
  • Category II-2: Evidence from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies, preferably from more than one center or research group.
  • Category II-3: Evidence from multiple times series with or without intervention or dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments such as the results of the introduction of penicillin treatment in the 1940s.
  • Category III: Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports, or reports of expert committees.

 

Links to websites showing the Hierarchy of Evidence