HPV Vaccine - Frequently Asked Questions
HPV vaccines have been shown to be very safe.
In Ireland there are two vaccines currently licensed and available for the prevention of HPV infection .
Gardasil®, manufactured by MSD, protects against infection with four HPV types (6, 11, 16 and 18).
Gardasil 9®, manufactured by MSD, protects against infecion with nine HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58).
You can read the licensed documentation about Gardasil called the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) here and the Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) here for more detailed information about the vaccine.
The vaccine works in the same way as other vaccines. The body reacts by making special proteins, called antibodies, which help the immune system fight HPV infection.
Key points about the vaccine
- is not infectious
- cannot cause HPV infection
- cannot cause cancer
- is not a live vaccine
Gardasil® constituents are outlined in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC).
- Protein, in the form of HPV virus like particles, which causes the body's immune system to produce special proteins, called antibodies, which protects you from HPV disease
- Aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulphate, aluminium salts have been used in many vaccines for 70 years The quantity of aluminium in the vaccine is very small (most adults will get approximately 35x more aluminium in their diet each day, than exists in the vaccine)
- L-histidine is an essential part of proteins which our body needs, and that we get mostly from the food we eat. A small amount is required in the vaccine
- Polysorbate 80 is commonly used in many products ranging from vaccines and medications to ice cream
- Sodium borate, a component of some vaccines and medicinal compounds such as Optrex eye drops, is present in very small amounts.
The vaccine is manufactured using yeast cells. However as no yeast remains in the vaccine, allergy to yeast is not a contraindication to the vaccine.
The vaccine does not contain preservatives, antibiotics or any human or animal materials.
Gardasil® is very effective at preventing disease occurring from the HPV types that are included in the vaccine.
The vaccine is over 99% effective in preventing pre-cancers associated with HPV types 16 and 18 in young women and 99% effective in preventing genital warts associated with HPV types 6 and 11
In Australia, Denmark, Sweden, the US, Canada and the UK the HPV vaccine has dramatically reduced the number of cases of pre-cancers of the cervix in young women. In countries where Gardasil is used the number of cases of genital warts has decreased dramatically, in both young women and men.
Studies so far show that protection lasts for at least 11 years after a full course of the vaccine.
It is expected that the vaccine will provide long term protection, through the body's ‘immune memory’.
All girls less than 15 years of age at the first dose require two doses of the HPV vaccine given at least 6 months apart.
All girls aged 15 years and older at the first dose require three doses of the HPV vaccine given at least 6 months apart and the third dose given at least three months after the second dose.
Girls should not receive the vaccine if they:
- have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to a previous HPV vaccine or any of its ingredients
- are pregnant
- Fever - If a girl has a high fever and is unwell, the vaccination will be postponed.
- Bleeding disorders – If you suffer from any bleeding disorder please let us know
These are outlined in the vaccine Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) The known side-effects are presented in the PIL by how commonly they occur.
About 1 girl in 10 will get pain, swelling and redness at the injection site and/ or headache.
About 1 girl in 100 will get nausea, pain in the vaccinated arm and mild fever.
About 1 girl in 1000 to 1 girl in 10,000 will get an itchy rash or hives.
If you are concerned that you may have developed a side effect after vaccination, seek medical advice.
Severe allergic reactions with difficulty breathing are very rare (about 1 in 1 million patients). However, the school vaccination team are trained to treat any severe allergic reaction.
Occasionally girls faint after getting an injection. The girls are advised to sit down for 15 minutes after the vaccination. This helps prevent fainting.
There are no known long-term side effects of Gardasil.
For more information, please see the PIL.
Yes - HPV vaccines have also been shown to be effective in preventing infection in men. Some countries for example Australia and the United States, recommend routine vaccination for boys. This is not recommended as part of the school programme in Ireland at present. If you wish to get your son vaccinated you will need to pay for the vaccine and the administration of the vaccine privately.
The HPV vaccine will protect girls from developing cervical cancer when they are adults and is available free of charge from the HSE.
Copies of the information materials are available to download for parents of girls in 1st year of second level schools or equivalent in special schools.
Since HPV vaccine was licensed in 2006, research has been conducted all over the world that shows that the vaccine is safe and prevents cancer. The evidence has been steadily growing since 2006 and now an enormous bank of research proves the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine. Studies have been conducted worldwide showing that HPV vaccination is the right way to protect girls from cervical cancer. This map shows the countries which have conducted the most research on HPV vaccine.
The World Health Organization Global Advisory Committee for Vaccine Safety (GACVS) has continually reviewed the evidence on the safety of Gardasil vaccine in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2013, 2014 and 2015. WHO has never reported safety concerns with HPV vaccines.
WHO again reported in July 2017 that HPV vaccines are considered to be extremely safe. Further information can be found here: http://www.who.int/vaccine_safety/committee/topics/hpv/en/