Are the results Valid?
- Was this an appropriate study design to answer the research question?
- Did it measure what it intended to measure?
- Did the study have enough power to detect a significant result?
- Did they include intention to treat?
What are the results?
What re the results in terms of:
- Magnitude: e.g. overall results do they report NNT RRR etc
- Significance: are they statically and clinically significant?
- Do they report CIs and P values?
Are they generalisable to my situation or your title (same thing)
- Is the intervention feasible in my situation?
- Could we afford the intervention?
Hierarchy of Evidence
- Category I: Evidence from at least one properly randomized controlled trial.
- Category II-1: Evidence from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.
- Category II-2: Evidence from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies, preferably from more than one center or research group.
- Category II-3: Evidence from multiple times series with or without intervention or dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments such as the results of the introduction of penicillin treatment in the 1940s.
- Category III: Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports, or reports of expert committees.
- Rod Jackson [et al], The GATE frame: critical appraisal with pictures
Evidence-Based Medicine 2006;11:35-38; doi:10.1136/ebm.11.2.35
© 2006 by BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
- Systematic Review Critical Appraisal Sheet
- Diagnostic Critical Appraisal Sheet
- RCT Critical Appraisal Sheet
- PICOT Critical Appraisal Sheet (PDF)
- CATmaker is a software tool which helps you create Critically Appraised Topics.
- Levels of evidence(Centre for Evidence Based Medicine)
- Critical Appraisal Tools developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP):
- Search BestBETs database for BETs or critical appraisals. (Best Evidence Topics)
- Developed at the General Practice & Primary Care department of the University of Glasgow, these checklists:
- Checklist for an article on treatment or prevention
- Checklist for an article on qualitative research
- Checklist for an article on decision analysis
- Checklist for an article on an educational intervention
- Checklist for an article on prognosis
- Checklist for an article on harm or causation
- Checklist for an article on guidelines
- Checklist for an article on diagnosis or screening
- Checklist for a systematic review
- Checklist for economic evaluations
- 10 questions to help you make sense of qualitative research
- How to read a paper: Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research) Trisha Greenhalgh,Rod Taylor
- Evaluation Tool for Qualitative Studies(University of Salford)
- Evaluation tool for mixed Studies (University of Salford)
- Integrative Approaches to Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence, Mary Dixon-Woods, Shona Agarwal, Bridget Young, David Jones, Alex Sutton: 2004 , Health Development Agency NHS
- The Evidence Pyramid: Levels of Evidence
- Evidence Direct: Critical appraisal