5 most common HCAIs
Surgical site infection
A surgical site is
Surgical site infections can be superficial (affecting the skin only) or more severe (affecting the tissues/muscles under the skin). Surgical site infections cannot always be prevented. The likelihood of an infection depends on a number of factors related to both the patient's general health at the time of surgery and the type and duration of surgery carried out.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness. Symptoms include
The majority of patients who are treated for pneumonia in
However, hospital-acquired pneumonia can occur especially in intensive care patients who require assistance with breathing (on a life support machine or ventilator). Pneumonia can be a severe infection and can sometimes be fatal.
Urinary tract infection
The urinary tract includes the kidneys (which filter the blood to produce urine), the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), the bladder (which stores urine), and the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside). Urinary tract infections occur when germs get into the urethra and travel up into the bladder.
Symptoms of urinary tract infection can include; passing urine more frequently than usual, pain passing urine, fever and chills. Patients who have a catheter (tube) inserted into the bladder to drain urine are more likely to develop a urinary tract infection.
A bloodstream infection can occur when germs enter the blood. Symptoms include fever, chills, general weakness, nausea and vomiting. Patients with a catheter (drip) placed into a vein are more likely to get a bloodstream infection. These are very serious infections and can be fatal.
- read about the surveillance of bloodstream infections.
- read more about management of catheter-related bloodstream infection associated with non-tunnelled CVCs.
Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the bowel caused by an infection. Symptoms include diarrhoea, vomiting and tummy cramps. Gastroenteritis is commonly acquired in the community and those affected (especially the elderly and children) may be admitted to hospital due to dehydration.
Hospital-acquired gastroenteritis is most commonly caused by Clostridium